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来源:Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2016

作者:Renáta Bašková;Zuzana Struková;Mária Kozlovská;等

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Nowadays, high-performance concrete (HPC) and ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) are ranked among advanced concrete technologies. The application of the mentioned advanced technologies may have potential to improve the construction efficiency from several points of view. For instance, reducing of construction time and construction material, construction quality improving, environmental impact minimizing, and increasing of both durability and lifetime of structures as well as reducing of total construction costs may be obtained. Particular advanced concrete technologies are described and the possibilities of their utilization in both monolithic structures and precast units are presented in the article. The main benefits of modern methods of construction (MMC) based on advanced concrete technologies application in precast elements production are presented. Regarding the selected aspects of construction efficiency assessment, a comparison of conventional and advanced concrete technologies that are applied in monolithic structures and precast units is made. The results of this comparison, estimated in semantic differential scale, are presented in the article. By the results of the comparison, the significance of applying the advanced concrete technologies in modern methods of concrete structures production is demonstrated in order to improve construction efficiency.

    来源:Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2016

    作者:Solomon Yim;Jin-Hee Ahn;DongYeob Han;等

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    Concrete is certainly prone to internal deteriorations or defects during the construction and operating periods. Compared with other nondestructive techniques, infrared thermography can easily detect the subsurface delamination in a very short period of time, but accurately identifying its size and depth in concrete is a very challenging task. In this study, experimental testing was carried out on a concrete specimen having internal delaminations of various sizes and at varying depths. Delaminations at 1 and 2 cm deep showed a good temperature contrast after only 5-minute heating, but delaminations at 3 cm practically identified the value of the temperature contrast from heating of 15 minutes. In addition, the size of the delamination at 3 cm deep could be estimated with a difference of 10% to 28% for 20 minutes of heating. The depth of the delamination was linearly correlated with the increase in its size.

      来源:Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2016

      作者:Vyacheslav N. Burlayenko

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      Thermomechanical behavior and crack propagation in a functionally graded metal/ceramic plate undergoing thermal shock are analyzed by using the finite element method. A two-dimensional plane strain functionally graded finite element has been developed within the ABAQUS software environment for this purpose. An actual material gradation has been accomplished by sampling material quantities directly at the Gauss points of the element via programming appropriate user-defined subroutines. The virtual crack closure technique is used to model a crack growth under thermal loading. Contact possible between crack lips during the crack advance is taken into account in thermomechanical simulations as well. The paper shows that the presented finite element model can be applied to provide an insight into the thermomechanical respond and failure of the metal/ceramic plate.

        来源:Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2016

        作者:P. Rodríguez-Gonzálvez;D. González-Aguilera;S. Lagüela;等

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        One criterion for the evaluation of surface cracks in steel welds is to analyze the depth of the crack, because it is an effective indicator of its potential risk. This paper proposes a new methodology to obtain an accurate crack-depth prediction model based on the combination of infrared thermography and the 3D reconstruction procedure. In order to do this, a study of the cooling rate of the steel is implemented through active infrared thermography, allowing the study of the differential thermal behavior of the steel in the fissured zone with respect to the nonfissured zone. These cooling rate data are correlated with the real geometry of the crack, which is obtained with the 3D reconstruction of the welds through a macrophotogrammetric procedure. In this way, it is possible to analyze the correlation between cooling rate and depth through the different zones of the crack. The results of the study allow the establishment of an accurate predictive depth model which enables the study of the depth of the crack using only the cooling rate data. In this way, the remote measure of the depth of the surface steel crack based on thermography is possible.

          来源:Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2016

          作者:Natalya Kovaleva;Julia Dikareva;Semen Kamagurov;等

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          A relative ability of industrial samples of four phosphorus-free polymers (polyaspartate (PASP); polyepoxysuccinate (PESA); polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PAAS); copolymer of maleic and acrylic acid (MA-AA)) and of three phosphonates (aminotris(methylenephosphonic acid), ATMP; 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-bis(phosphonic acid), HEDP; phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid, PBTC) to inhibit calcium sulfate precipitation is studied following the NACE Standard along with dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. For the 0.5 mg·dm−3 dosage, the following efficiency ranking was found: MA-AA~ATMP>PESA (400–1500 Da)>PASP (1000–5000 Da) ≫ PAAS (3000–5000 Da)~PBTC~HEDP. The isolated crystals are identified as gypsum. SEM images for PESA, PASP, PAAS, and HEDP and for a blank sample indicated the needle-like crystal morphology. Surprisingly, the least effective reagent PBTC revealed quite a different behavior, changing the morphology of gypsum crystals to an irregular shape. The DLS experiments exhibited a formation of 300 to 700 nm diameter particles with negative ζ-potential around −2 mV for all reagents. Although such ζ-potential values are not capable of providing colloidal stability, all three phosphonates demonstrate significant gypsum particles stabilization relative to a blank experiment.

            来源:Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2016

            作者:A. I. Oliva-Avilés;A. I. Oliva;G. M. Alonzo-Medina;等

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